November 18, 2010

U.S. Commission accuses China of data hijacking...

...is the title of an article published yesterday on Spiegel Online (German), one of the biggest news-websites in Germany (an article discussing this topic may also be found on cnn.com). Referring to a report published by the United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission on Wednesday, they raise the question whether a prefix-hijacking event observed in April 2010 and caused by a Chinese ISP could have been a deliberated (eavesdropping) attack against the U.S. government and U.S. companies. Even if the article does not give a final answer to this question, it suggests that this interpretation of the event is likely.

Motivated by this interpretation, I had a closer look at this event yesterday evening. The following analyses are based on the data provided by the Route Views Project. The event took place at April 8th, starting at around 3:54 p.m. UTC. At this point in time, AS23724 (China Telecom Corp. Ltd., the largest ISP in the People's Republic of China) started to originate at least 22,311 address prefixes. This is around 6.84% of the number of prefixes covered by the global routing table at this point in time. Before the event started, China Telecom originated 39 global prefixes. The events last for around 18 minutes.

From my point of view, four aspects seem to be relevant to assess the intention behind this event: Firstly, an important question is who is involved in the event. The report tells us that
, a state-owned Chinese telecommunications firm ‘‘hijacked’’ massive volumes of Internet traffic. [...]
China Telecom advertised erroneous network traffic routes that instructed U.S. and other foreign Internet traffic to travel through Chinese servers. [...]
This incident affected traffic to and from U.S. government (".gov") and military (".mil") sites, including those for the Senate, the army, the navy, the marine corps, the air force, the office of secretary of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Commerce, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and many others. Certain commercial websites were also affected, such as those for Dell, Yahoo!, Microsoft, and IBM.
Even if this is indeed right, also organizations and companies from other countries were affected. Examples are France Telecom (109.211.0.0/16), Vodafone Ireland (e.g. 109.76.0.0/15), Sanyo (110.172.48.0/22), the Russian Institute for Public Networks (195.209.160.0/19), the Australian Department of Defence (203.10.234.0/24), and ChinaNet (many, many 110.x.x.x/24 networks), but also a lot of other companies and organizations could be mentioned. In fact, most parts of the "first world" were affected (the full list of Org-Names can be found here).

The second important aspect is the precision of the "attack". The event that has appeared on April 8th affected a lot of different organizations: We find the U.S. government, government organizations from other countries, business concerns from Europe, telcos from Asia, but also several other companies and organizations from many different countries. Obviously, purposefully redirecting such different kinds of traffic at the same time to the same destination does not really makes sense in practice.

Thirdly, the duration of the event should be kept in mind. 18 minutes is not that much time. It's seems not to be long enough to hijack specific information from any of the affected organizations (even if it is theoretically indeed enough time to gather IP- or mail-addresses). However, it seems long enough to identify and correct an error in the configuration.

Fourthly, China Telecom did not try to hide the prefix hijacking. In all new AS-paths, AS23724 can be identified as origin of the information announcement. After a few minutes, the event and its origin was clearly visible in the whole world.

All in all, from my point of view, an intended hijacking of network traffic is highly unlikely. I would guess that we have observed a simple but fatal configuration failure. If someone would try to hijack or eavesdrop on traffic, a plausible strategy would be to attack few prefixes that belong to one target. Most likely, the attacker would try to cloud the attack or at least its source, for example by manipulating parts of the AS-path.

However, even if we have observed most likely a simple misconfiguration event in this case, the basic problem lasts: BGP is highly vulnerable to misconfiguration and intended attacks. Most likely, a good attack could be hidden effectively today. But the report also has an upside: Politicians and the public start to become aware of the problem.

UB

Update: Of course, I am not the only one who had a closer look at the hijacking event on April, 8th 2010. Some further interesting details may be found in the renesys and Arbor Networks blogs.

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